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Index to Lipari marriages 1866-1881

Index to Lipari Marriages 1866-1881

By Joe Russo
March 31, 2017

Download spreadsheet here:  Index to Lipari marriages 1866-1881.

This spreadsheet is an index to all the marriages registered in the civil records of Lipari, Italy, between the years 1866 and 1881 which are made available to us by FamilySearch (LDS).  It does not include marriages registered on any of the other islands of Isole Eolie.

There are three tabs:  1) notes (outlined below), 2) the index, and 3) the template used.

You can use the template to copy the relevant marriages you find on the index tab to the template tab to separate those you are interested in from all the others, or, if you wish to contribute to bringing the index forward to 1910, use the template to add further years and then submit it to be included in a future update.

Sample of the index’s layout:

Sample of Index to Lipari Marriages 1

 

Sample of Index to Lipari Marriages 1

 

Notes:

* This spreadsheet is an index to marriages for the years 1866-1881 for Lipari, Italy.

* Marriage certificates begin on the page it is linked to at FamilySearch but may continue onto the next page especially for the years 1866-1874 where there records are handwritten.

* Lipari marriages 1866 and 1868 are missing from the online records and therefore not included on this spreadsheet.

* Some years have documents pertaining to the marriage certificates attached at the end of that section.

* Sometimes the link does not have the same image number as on Family Search. To change this, change the microfilm number on the left just above the image. It will then show the correct image number.

 

 

 

* I have retained the originally spelling of surnames that have the letter ‘j’ instead of ‘i’ after another vowel.

* A person’s title has been removed.

* In the comments column; ved. = vedova/o, Italian for widow/-er.

* 1P2 = Record number 1 Part 2.  These are the handwritten records found after December of that year.

* Short Reference Explanation:  LIP-M 1867:1/img4 = Lipari Marriages 1867, number 1, image number 4 (on FamilySearch).

* There is a tab on this spreadsheet with the template used.  You can use the template to copy the relevant marriages you find on the index tab to the template tab to separate those you are interested in from all the others, or, if you wish to contribute to bringing the index forward to 1910 (the last year available to us through FamilySearch), use the template to add further years and then submit it to be included in a future update.

 

* Spreadsheet prepared by Joe Russo, © March 2017

* Posted March 31, 2017 on the Aeolian Genealogy Website Blog.

 

 

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The Aeolian Islands Quiz

How well do you know the Aeolian Islands Quiz

by Joe Russo
October 2, 2016

img_0213rs

Try the quiz:  How well do you know the Aeolian Islands?

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From Barbarossa to the Kingdom of Sicily

by Joe Russo
December 7, 2015

From Barbarossa to the Kingdom of Sicily

(Lipari 1544 – 1610)

A couple of generations after Barbarossa sacked Lipari in 1544, the first comprehensive census was taken. The year was 1610. Lipari had recently become part of the Kingdom of Sicily after being part of the Kingdom of Naples since 1458.[1] By this time, the generation that had witnessed the devastating events of 66 years earlier – the few that survived or managed to return – had virtually all passed from the scene as was the generation that arrived immediately afterwards.[2] What we will look at in this article is the period between these two dates and what the census reveals about the population in 1610.

The changing nature of Lipari’s population

Before we get to 1610, let’s get an overview of what article2photo1was happening during the intervening 66 years since Barbarossa. The Spanish came, set up a garrison=presidio and reinforced the city’s fortifications. While they provided protection, immigrants were incentivised to settle on Lipari while others returned, arrived due to trade or their skills were required in the rebuilding of Lipari. New surnames were introduced.

We are told that those who evaded capture or returned were few in number.

Invero, proprio nel 1544, pochi furono i Liparoti che sfuggirono ai pirati e pochi furono quelli che sottrassero alla schiavitù e tornarono in “patria”; parecchie, invece, furono le persone provenienti dalla Calabria, dalla Campania e soprattutto dalla Sicilia che si stabilirono a Lipari tra il 1544 e il 1550 e negli anni successivi.[3]

Indeed, precisely in 1544, few were the Liparoti who evaded the pirates and not many those who escaped from slavery and returned to their homeland; many, instead, were those who came from Calabria, Campania and above all Sicily who settled on Lipari between 1544 and 1550 and the following years.”

Actually, we do not really know the origin of those who arrived on Lipari during the first decade after Barbarossa. It’s not until later that church records start consistently documenting the origin of the people who were not native born. This is when we learn Calabria and Sicily as the homeland for the majority of Isole Eolie’s new residents. However, it is not inconsistent that the earlier migrants should also be from here.

Angelo Raffa reaches the same conclusion:

Dei genitori di costoro (cioè dei primi immigrati, nel periodo dei primi decenni dopo il 1544) non conosciamo, naturalmente, la provenienza.[4]

Of their parents (that is of the earliest immigrants, from the first decade after 1544) we do not know, of course, where they came from.

Beyond the city of Lipari

As the population grew, the people started moving to the towns further away from the city,article2photo2parrocchia and, as a consequence, churches, chapels or oratories were built in those locations. Churches get built where there are people for the church to service. If there are no people living there, then there is no need to build a church or a chapel. By looking at when these churches were built, we can assume there must have been a small community living in those towns at that time. In 1545 three churches rose up and in the space of 27 years (1569-1596) 18 more churches/chapels were built throughout Lipari.[5]

Some churches on Lipari and when they were founded:

  • Lipari
    • San Giuseppe  1545
    • San Pietro        1545
    • Sant’Anna         1569
    • Santa Caterina 1579
    • San Francesco(Sant’Antonio) 1585
  • Serra             1579
  • Pirrera           1588
  • Quattropani   1588
  • Pianoconte    1593
  • Canneto        1594

The entire island of Lipari had been repopulated to some degree by the turn of the century.

On Salina, there wasn’t much of a presence before the turn of the century.

  • Rinella            1602
  • Capo              1606
  • Lingua            1612
  • Valdichiesa    1622
  • Santa Marina 1622
  • Malfa              1632

 

At the time of Barbarossa, Jérome Maurand tells us Salina was well cultivated with vineyards and their produce was sold as far away as Constantinople.

. . . Saline, dove sono belissime vigne, non de uve per far vino, ma sollo da far zebibi; dove se ne fa en grandissima quantità, de li quali li mercanti ne portano fino in Constantinopoli. [6]

. . . Salina, where there are beautiful vineyards, not grapes to make [any] wine, but only to make zebibbo; where they make a great quantity, which the merchants export even to Constantinople.

In 1573 the Bishop of Lipari, D. Pietro Cavaliero, issued an order that no one was to go to any of the other islands without written permission from him with the penalty being excommunication. The edicts were continued by other bishops in 1581 until 1622.[7] The church needed to monitor what was grown and caught on the islands and receive its decima=a tenth of the revenue.

Di più, nel medisimo anno 1573, Monsignore D. Pietro Cavaliero Vescovo di Lipari fece ordine fulminatamente che nessuna persona avesse ardire di andare a nessuna Isola – come Salina, Vulcano, Alicudi, Filicudi, Strongoli, Panarea – senza licenza in scriptis di esso monsignore . . . .[8]

Moreover, in the same year 1573, Monsignor Don Pietro Cavaliero Bishop of Lipari enacted an order that nobody should dare go to any island – like Salina, Vulcano, Alicudi, Filicudi, Stromboli, Panarea – without a written permit from him. . . .

and (1581)

So che Don Pietro Cavaliero Piscopo di questa Città fece bandire nella ecclesia una scomunica che nessuna persona andasse all’isola della Salina senza una expressa licenza scritta e poi la fece attaccare alla porta della madre Chiesa . . . .[9]

I know that Don Pietro Cavaliero Piscopo of this city proclaimed in church an excommunication that no one should go to the island of Salina without a written permit and then had it attached to the door of the mother church. . . .

By 1595, during Bishop Giovanni Gonzales de Mendoza’s tenure (1593-1598), Salina was being cultivated for the church (‘ora comincia ad essere coltivata=now it begins to be cultivated’).[10] The census in 1610 only mentions a few people and the church as owning land on Salina.

Dai riveli infatti risulta che la Chiesa liparitana possedeva vari fabbricati (chiese, palazzo vescovile e qualche casetta) dentro la città di Lipari e che aveva la piena proprietà o era proprietaria direttaria di fondi siti a Salina e in varie località dell’isola di Lipari . . . . [11]

From the census we learn that the Church in Lipari owned various buildings (churches, bishop’s residence and several small houses) within the city of Lipari and it had the full ownership or was the lessor of land on Salina and in various locations on the island of Lipari.

Whatever presence there was on Salina was therefore few in number and/or seasonal in nature with the inhabitants returning to Lipari.[12]

The other islands were uninhabited, or at least there weren’t any settled communities during the second half of the 1500s, with no one owning cultivable land.

Nulla dicono i riveli circa le altre isole dell’arcipelago, però, per l’esattezza, anche queste vanno incluse tra i beni immobili di cui la Chiesa di Lipari vantava la proprietà sulla base delle concessioni normanne del 1088 e del 1134 e della bolla di Urbano II del 1091. . . Nulla risulta dai riveli circa la distribuzione della terra coltivabile a Vulcano, Stromboli, Panarea, Alicudi e Filicudi. [13]

The census says nothing about the other islands of the archipelago, but, to be exact, even these are included with the property owned by the Church of Lipari according to the Norman concessions of 1088 and 1134 and the papal bull of Urban II of 1091. . . There is nothing in the census about the distribution of cultivable land on Vulcano, Stromboli, Panarea, Alicudi and Filicudi.

The church records

The Council of Trent (1545-63) established every parish priest was to maintain written records of baptisms, marriages and deaths of all parishioners. [14] So for Lipari, we have baptisms beginning in December 1559, marriages from 1594 and burials from 1651. Although some years don’t have a complete set of records, we can still draw some reasonable conclusions.

article2Chart1

Chart 1: Total Lipari Births 1560-1610 (*adjusted for incomplete years 1586, 88-93, 1599-1601).[15]

From this chart of births, where I have made some adjustments when the records don’t cover the full year, we see during the 1560s it averaged around the 40-50 births/year but a couple of generations later into 1610 there were over 140 births/year – three times that of the earlier period of the 1560s. Now, we don’t know how many births there were prior to 1560 because no records exist. Nor do we know how many died during this period nor how many people migrated and settled on Lipari. So any calculation back to 1544 is at best an estimate.

The Census

The census covers a lot of aspects that we will not cover in this article. We are not going to be concerned so much with the resident’s possessions, the distribution of their wealth, or how many animals they owned. We are interested in the statistical make-up of the population. Giuseppe Arena analysed the 1610 census that is kept at the Palermo Archives and documented it in his book Popolazione e distribuzione della ricchezza a Lipari nel 1610. The following figures are from his book. [16]

The author differentiates between residents and those present on Lipari at the time: [17]

1) The population present during the census was 2647 [18] and included.

  • Those of native origin.
  • Those who arrived from elsewhere but had attained Liparoti citizenship and were present on the island.
  • Foreigners who were present during the census (but were not citizens).

2) The resident population during the census was 2384 and, compared to the present population, excluded.

  • Spanish soldiers (including their families and servants).
  • A few others who happened to be there primarily on business.
  • But includes residents who are noted as absent during the census (mariners, on business, and ‘i sequestrati’ (taken captive by pirates).

We shall alternate between the present and resident population depending upon which facts and figures are better supplied to us. For example, there is a better analysis of the resident population than there is of the population present. Some figures refer only to the male population because quite often a woman’s age is not given; neither is it for the clergy.

Here are some figures.

  • Present population 2647 of which 1402 male and 1245 female.
  • Resident population 2384 of which 1281 male and 1103 female.

article2Chart2

Charts 2a/b: Lipari’s Population in 1610 (percentage of males and females)

  • 2 medical doctors (Giovanni Russo and Jacovo Canali).
  • 4 doctors of law and 4 notaries. In other words, 8 qualified in law and only 2 in medicine for the entire population.
  • 9 people who did not own anything. There are also quite a few people listed as servants, apprentices, or living with other family members. These people probably didn’t own any taxable possessions or land of their own as they lived with someone else.
  • 11 orphans.
  • 22 average age of resident non-cleric males with only 15% of the male population over 40. Although we can’t calculate it, the female population probably had a similar demographic distribution.

article2Chart3

Chart 3: Total number of non-cleric resident males per age group.

article2Chart4

Chart 4: Total number of non-cleric resident males per age group.

  • 38 Slaves.
  • 45 priests, 8 Frati Minori Osservanti (Franciscan Order) and 18 nuns (71 clergy, 92 including their families and servants living with them).
  • 57 soldiers (256 including their families and servants).

article2Chart5

Chart 5: Population present during the 1610 census.

  • 88 servants (excluding slaves and clerics at the service of higher clergy); 75 males and 13 females.
  • 91 inhabitants/km2 (density of Lipari).
  • 391 married couples for the resident population (of which four husbands were absent during the census) and excludes non-resident married soldiers (total of 47, three of whom were married to residents of Lipari).
  • 822 single males and 550 single females (excludes priests and nuns).

article2Chart6a article2Chart6b

Charts 6a/b: Lipari’s resident population by marital status.

Conclusion

In 1544 few people were left after Barbarossa sacked Lipari – perhaps a few hundred at most – to repopulate the island. By the beginning of the 1600s the entire island of Lipari had been repopulated to some degree with churches appearing throughout the island. The population expanded such that in 1610 there were 2384 residents and 2647 present during the census of that year. This is not a lot of people – little more than the population of Salina today. Not many people owned or worked the land outside Lipari. Salina was primarily cultivated for the church and the smaller islands were uninhabited and uncultivated. The population was young, a large proportion of them unmarried, and few soldiers (excluding their families) were present. The figures provide a good analysis of how far Lipari had come in a couple of generations and with a high growth rate gave it a solid foundation for future growth in the years ahead.

Endnotes

[1] Giuseppe A.M. Arena, Popolazione e distribuzione della ricchezza a Lipari nel 1610, (Società Messinese di storia patria, 1992), p.7; Leopoldo Zagami, Le isole Eolie tra leggenda e storia, (Pungitopo, 2006), pp.234, 267; Pietro Campis, Disegno historico o siano l’abbozzate historie della nobile e fidelissima città di Lipari, ms. del 1694, published with notes by Giuseppe Iacolino (Bartolino Famularo, 1980), p.276. Lipari became part of the Kingdom of Sicily on May 30, 1610.
[2] Arena, op. cit. There were only 15 people 66 years or older of which two were over 80 of 2647 in total present during the census. Those who arrived during the first decade as adults (minimum in their 20s) would have been at least mid-70s and older. In other words, there were only a few who could remember the events of 1544.
[3] Ibid., pp.23-24. Arena draws on Campis’ reference that after Don Pietro di Toledo, Viceroy of Naples, restored the ancient privileges to Lipari and “…perlochè dalla Sicilia, dalla Calabria e da molte Città dell’Italia vennero buone famiglie ad habitarvi” (…for that reason from Sicily, Calabria and from many Italian cities came good families to live here.) (Campis, op. cit., 164v, p.307).
[4] Angelo Raffa, “La fine della Lipari medioevale”, in Dal “constitutum” alle “controversie liparitane”, Quaderno del museo archeologico regionale eoliano, 2, 1998, p.103, col.1.
[5] Giuseppe Iacolino, Raccontare Salina, Vol.II, (Mario Grispo Editore, 2010), pp.154-155. Some dates vary depending on the source. For example, the façade of the church in Canneto (San Cristoforo) shows the founding date as 1594 whereas Iacolino has 1596.
[6] Jérome Maurand, La Flotta di Barbarossa a Vulcano e Lipari nel 1544, (P. Orsi edizione, 1995), Cap. XI, [p.2].
[7] Iacolino, op. cit., pp.159-162.
[8] L. Genuardi e L. Siciliano, Il domino del vescovo terreni pomiciferi dell’isola di Lipari, (Arcireale, 1912), p.82, no8., quoted in Iacolino, ibid., p.159.
[9] AVL, Libro dei testimoni (1581-1606), manuscript, f.22 v., quoted in Iacolino, op.cit., p. 160.
[10] Iacolino, op. cit., p.173.
[11] Arena, op. cit., p.41. proprietaria direttaria = chi è proprietario di un fondo dato in enfiteusi (where the lessee was required to improve the land and pay an annual fee in either money or agricultural produce).
[12] Baptisms and marriages are recorded in Lipari during this period.
[13] Arena, op. cit., pp.160, 42. Even Ustica wasn’t colonised until the 1760s due to the fear of piracy – the initial settlement in 1761-2 was raided by pirates and most were either killed or enslaved before the island was refortified by soldiers from Palermo followed by a second settlement in 1763.
[14] Trafford R. Cole, Italian Genealogical Records, (Ancestry Incorporated, 1995), p.100; “Italy Church Records” on FamilySearch, https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Italy_Church_Records, viewed October 2015.
[15] Chart prepared by Joe Russo. Data derived from LDS Microfilm 1338513, Lipari Baptisms 1559-1696, adjusted for incomplete years 1586, 88-93, 1599-1601 to better reflect births for the full year. This is not a net total and therefore excludes deaths during the same years.
[16] Arena, op. cit., pp.24-28, 59, 81-93. Pie charts for the 1610 census prepared by Joe Russo from data derived from Arena.
[17] Ibid., pp.16-18.
[18] Raffa says there were 2659 inhabitants: “…dai riveli del 1610 risulta che gli abitanti di Lipari erano 2.659.” (…from the census of 1610 the inhabitants of Lipari were 2,659), Raffa, op. cit., pp.102-103.

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Estimating the population of Lipari in 1544

by Joe Russo
October 1, 2015

Lipari è facto cusi[1]

For eleven days[2],[3] during the month of July in 1544, the Ottoman admiral and corsair Hayreddin Barbarossa (c.1478-1546) (also known as Khayr ad-din) lay siege and sacked the city of Lipari taking most of the population captive. Afterwards, Charles V had the city refortified and the island repopulated so over the course of several decades, many families came to Lipari mostly from Sicily, Calabria, mainland Italy and Spain.[4]

Over the course of the next few centuries, the population of the archipelago continued to grow until it peaked at 21,639 in 1861 and 21,210 in 1891[5],[6], followed by a rapid decline into the 1970s as many emigrated from the islands to the USA, Australia, Argentina and other countries.

In this brief discussion we shall look at the year 1544 and determine how many people there might have been at the time of Barbarossa.

The higher estimate

A general reading of Lipari’s history reveals the belief that roughly 8-9,000 of its 10,000 inhabitants were taken captive by Barbarossa, leaving few remaining.

Jérome Maurand, the French priest present on the French contingent accompanying Barbarossa’s fleet, wrote an account of the event and tells us of 10,000 inhabitants, 9,000 were taken into slavery:

“Sonno [sic] stati menati schiavi anime Liparitane utriusque sexus 9000 . . . quali tuti in numero sonno stimati anime diese millia . . . presse dentro de Lipari et mentate schiave.”[7]

The historian Pietro Campis, who wrote a comprehensive history of Lipari (Disegno historico o siano l’abbozzate historie della nobile e fidelissima città di Lipari, 1694), says “circa otto mila schiavi” [8] while the Pyrologia (1783) “e con circa ottomila schiavi”[9] and more recently, Leopoldo Zagami “più di ottomila prigionieri.” [10]

This is quite a significant number of people when we consider that the next time the population reached this number was some 150 years later during Campis’ own time[11] and more recently the population of Lipari (excluding the three comuni of Salina) has hovered around this number since the 1970s.[12]

Although this number is generally referred to, there is little evidence on how it was arrived at except maybe from Maurand’s opinion that on Lipari he estimated some 2,000 houses.

“Questa insula de Lipari è asay grande . . . La cità è fortissima e li borgui grandi. A judico mio, inanti che fuse disfata da Turchi, vi erano tra la cità e li borgui 2,000 case.” [13]

How he managed to estimate there were 2,000 houses during his short time stationed out at sea during the assault on Lipari is not clear (although he did visit Vulcano).

The lower estimate

Pino Paino, in his book, La vera storia di Lipari, prefers a lower estimate of about 3-4,000:

“la popolazione dell’isola di Lipari, al tempo del Sacco del Barbarossa, non raggiungeva più di tre quattromila abitanti.”[14]

His estimate is based on family tradition from his ancestor Tommaso Pajno (1864-1949), a medical doctor.[15] Paino argues that Maurand’s and Campis’ estimates for those deported are absurd [16] and addresses some of the practical aspects against that figure. While he ponders the logistics involved such as the time it would take to board several thousand people in such a short time, the main point that I think questions the entire higher estimate is the population density within the walled city.[17]

When Barbarossa’s fleet approached, the inhabitants sought refuge within the città murata=walled city for protection and to defend the city. How many people could the walled city hold? He calculates, after allowing for the space occupied by churches, public buildings, and uninhabitable areas, had there been the greater population, this would result in a population density of 1m2 per person.[18] This is quite telling. Certainly, we could argue, given the circumstances, people would have also occupied these buildings and the other areas within the precinct as well (he calculates the total area at three times the above figure). They were crammed in there for protection. But still, this is hardly enough room for 10,000 people and defend the city. Practically, the higher estimate appears a little exaggerated.

An analytical approach

One other historian who considers the higher estimate an exaggeration is Giuseppe Restifo. He maintains that at most there were 4,660 inhabitants. He arrives at this figure in a most logical and analytical manner using what is known about 1544 with demographics derived from a census taken in 1610 as his benchmark and then extrapolates back to 1544.

Accordingly, the defence of the city was organised into six areas; each assigned two comandanti= commanders and comprised of 160 uomini in armi=soldiers. In total, there were 960 able men to defend the city. Restifo then suggests this segment of the population (men of age between 18 and 60) constituted 41.2% of the male population in 1610 and the male/female ratio was 53%. He then uses this to derive an estimate for 1544. His figure comes to 4,396 inhabitants and, if a 50:50 split between males and females is used, then it rises to 4,660 inhabitants.[19]

This is a logically derived conclusion except there is one problem. In 1610 we have a much younger population. People began arriving on Lipari from the 1550s onwards; settled, married and began having families. It was a younger population in the process of rebuilding. As you can see from the chart below, the largest segment of the male population is the 0-19 age group accounting for 56% of the male population (non-cleric).

article1Chart1

Chart 1: Total number of non-cleric males per age group – Lipari 1610[20]

article1Chart2

Chart 2: Total number of non-cleric males per age group – Lipari 1610: cumulative percentage[21]

This was a young, growing population. The average male age was 22. It’s not your typical population pyramid shape with the bulge in the middle and stable population growth. In other words, if we assume a more mature demographic, the percentage of males of fighting age would be higher than the 41.2% Restifo uses in his calculations.

article1Chart3

Chart 3: Total Lipari Births 1560-1610 (*adjusted for incomplete years 1586, 88-93, 1599-1601).[22]

What would be a more reasonable factor? A census takes place in Italy every ten years with the most recent one in 2011. Its population pyramid shows the largest age group is the 35-49 age group. And when we calculate the percentage of the male population aged between 20-59 (the data is broken down into five year segments) we find it is 55.4%.

article1Chart4

Chart 4: Population pyramid for Italy 2011[23]

article1Chart5

Chart 5: Total number of males per age group – Italy 2011: cumulative percentage[24]

Let’s compare this with Australia and the USA. Data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics shows Australia had a male population of 11,124,254 of which 6,201,486 (or 55.3%) are aged between 20 and 59.[25] It’s similar for the USA. In 2010, it had a male population of 151,781,326 of which 83,748,273 (or 55.2%) are aged between 20 and 59.[26]

What effect would this have? If we assume 50% of the male population was of an age able to bear arms and defend the city, rather than the 41.2% Restifo uses and nearer to the current demographics of Italy, then we arrive at a population of 3840 (960/0.50=1920males x2=3840 total population). This would be closer to the actual number than 4,660 and certainly a long way off from 10,000.

Conclusion

The general belief that Lipari had a population of 10,000 at the time of Barbarossa in 1544 and 8,000-9,000 of them were taken captive seems an exaggeration of the real extent of the de-population of Lipari in 1544. The logical extrapolation provided by Restifo goes a long way to accurately estimating the true population. Now, admittedly, we don’t know whether Lipari’s population in 1544 was young, old or a mature and stable population. What we do know is he derived his estimates from a younger, rapidly growing population so his calculation of no more than 4,660 can serve as the upper limit. Whereas using a factor closer to today’s demographics would place Lipari’s population at the lower estimate of around 3,840. Either way, what we can confidently say, is Lipari’s population in 1544 was less than half than what’s generally assumed and closer to 4,000.

 

Endnotes

[1] Jérome Maurand, La Flotta di Barbarossa a Vulcano e Lipari nel 1544, (P. Orsi edizione, 1995), Cap. XI, [p.16].  This is Maurand’s concluding remarks after witnessing the deplorable state Lipari had been reduce to:  “Qui avesse havuto l’animo più crudele del tigro, vedendo li pianti, gemiti et singulti quali gitavano queli poveri Liparitani abandonando la propria cita (et) [per] essere menati schiavi, il padre risguardando il figliolo, la madre la figliola, non averia potuto contenire li flebili occhi di l’abundante pianto, et queli cani pariano lupi rapasi in mezo de le timide pecorelle.  Lipari è facto cusi.”
[2] Michele Giacomantonio, Navigando nella storia delle Eolie, (Pungitopo, 2010) p.149. “Sugli undici giorni in cui durò l’attacco a Lipari, prima della sua caduta, abbiamo diverse versioni.”
[3] Pino Paino, La vera storia di Lipari, (Messina, 1996), p.138. “Ben undici giorni durò questo penoso assedio”
[4] Leopoldo Zagami, Le isole Eolie tra leggenda e storia, (Pungitopo, 2006), p.259, “il viceré di Napoli, don Pietro di Toledo…a nome del re Carlo V, il 21 gennario 1546.”
[5] Wikipedia, http://it.wikipedia.org articles Lipari_(comune), Santa_Marina_Salina, Leni and Malfa, viewed July 7, 2015.
[6] Pietro Campis, Disegno historico o siano l’abbozzate historie della nobile e fidelissima città di Lipari, ms. del 1694, published with notes by Giuseppe Iacolino (Bartolino Famularo, 1980), p.513.
[7] Maurand, loc. cit.; Giacomantonio, op.cit., p.160, 161.
[8] Campis, op.cit., p.305 (163v).
[9] Giuseppe La Rosa, Pyrologia Topostoricografica dell’Isole di Lipari seu Lipari Sacro, Vol.II, Parte III, orig. 1783 (Centro Studi, 1997), p.21.
[10] Zagami, op. cit., p.253.
[11] Campis, op. cit., p.308 (164v); Nota 32, p.455.
[12] Lipari (comune), https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipari_(comune), viewed July 7, 2015. Census years 1971 – 10,037, 1981 – 10,547, 1991 – 10,382, 2001 – 10,554, and 2011 – 11,642. This includes all islands that form the comune di Lipari, i.e., all except Salina.
[13] Maurand, op. cit., [p.1]; Giacomantonio, op.cit., p.150 (“La città è fortissima e i borghi grandi. A mio giudizio, prima di essere distrutta dai Turchi, vi erano tra la città e i borghi duemila case.”)
[14] Paino, op.cit., p.155.
[15] Ibid.
[16] Ibid., p.153. “cerchiamo ora di capire quanto sia assurdo, con buona pace di Jérome Maurand e Pietro del Campo di Randazzo . . . che il Barbarossa deportò da Lipari da otto a diecimila abitanti quando fu di quel Sacco.”
[17] Ibid., p.159-162.
[18] Ibid., p.157.
[19] Giacomantonio, op.cit., p.161-162.
[20] Data for chart derived from Giuseppe A.M. Arena, Popolazione e distribuzione della ricchezza a Lipari nel 1610, (Società Messinese di storia patria, 1992), pp.86-87. Excludes clerics, most of whom aren’t given an age in the census material.
[21] Ibid.
[22] Total Lipari Births 1560-1610, LDS Microfilm 1338513, Lipari Baptisms 1559-1696, adjusted for incomplete years 1586, 88-93, 1599-1601. This is not a net total and therefore excludes deaths during the same years.
[23] Data derived from ISTAT Statistics, Censimento popolazione e abitazioni 2011, Resident population by age, http://dati-censimentopopolazione.istat.it/, data extracted on Sept. 26, 2015.
[24] Ibid.
[25] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Demographic Statistics, Table T.7, Population pyramid of Australia. 1901 to 2010, http://abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS, searched Sept.26, 2015.
[26] U.S. Department of Commerce, United States Census Bureau, American FactFinder, http://factfinder.census.gov, searched September 26, 2015.